Missouri, in general, and St. Louis, in particular, show an almost tortured indecisiveness on the issue of race relations. Two centuries ago, although Missouri was a slave state, there was no unanimity on the question of abolishing slavery or maintaining it. Tension was often evidenced by violence and vitriol, but there were distinct points of view and champions of both. Slavery in the state had been legitimized by practice, precedent, and politics. But there were also challengers: those of both races who refused to accept the status quo.
“Negro Exodusters en route to Kansas, fleeing from the yellow fever” 1870. Credit: Library of Congress
The debate over slavery was being waged all over United States during the mid-19th century. Abolitionists were active, and actively countered by the proponents of slavery. But St. Louis, and Missouri, found themselves in the middle of the discussion because of the Dred Scott case in the years leading to the Civil War. While the Supreme Court case may have been a significant contributor to the war between the states, it may also have given less publicized evidence to a less well-publicized version of history, that Whites here were active in the cause of Dred and Harriet Scott and their two children.
The Civil War led to an attempt to shift the paradigm of race relations. The 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the Constitution were designed to do just that.
They did not. Reconstruction followed, then Jim Crow, then the modern era. This is an attempt to bring that history forward from the Dred and Harriet Scott case, through the war and its aftermath, and how it all affected race relations in St. Louis then and now. Tension between the races continued through the 19th and 20th centuries and into the 21st. Indeed, it remains today in the 21st century.
NAACP parade protesting the East Saint Louis Race Riot of 1917, New York City. Credit: Library of Congress
For Whites in this area there is much to be both ashamed of and proud in the region’s history of race relations. For Blacks, there is both much of which to be proud…and embittered.
What follows is not intended to be a complete and detailed history of the period from 1847 to 2010. Rather, the period is covered through conversations on St. Louis Public Radio between 2005 and 2010 with historians, authors, and first-person interviews with people who lived some of that history. For the most part, the focus is not on well-known “celebrities” of the civil rights movement, but rather on average people, Black and White, who worked hard to eradicate the formal and informal barriers to integration. The intention is to enlighten Blacks and Whites on history with which they may not be familiar and which will inspire greater understanding and harmony between the races in our community today. Hopefully, these stories will also encourage a more detailed look at the events which are included here.
Don Marsh, St. Louis on the Air host; author, narrator, and producer; and the impetus behind this project
Audio producers: Libby Franklin, Mary Edwards, and Aaron Doerr
Web editor and producer: Madalyn Painter
Logo designer: Rachel Augustine
Additional educational resources and photos for each episode contributed by Todd Swanstrom, E. Desmond Lee Endowed Professor of Community Collaboration and Public Policy Administration at the University of Missouri-St. Louis.
NPR's blog about racial identity.
Black news, opinion, politics, and culture.
Eyes on the Prize:
A documentary from PBS's American Experience
The nation's oldest and largest civil rights organization.
Southern Poverty Law Center:
A nonprofit civil rights organization dedicated to fighting hate and bigotry.
MO History Museum exhibit,
Race: Are We So Different?
Learn the history of race, the role of science in that history, and the subtle expressions of racism in institutions and daily lives.
Michele Norris' Race Card Project:
Your thoughts on race in six words.